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Resources and extraction of gallium: A review  ( SCI-EXPANDED收录 EI收录)   被引量:41

文献类型:期刊文献

英文题名:Resources and extraction of gallium: A review

作者:Lu, Fanghai Xiao, Tangfu Lin, Jian Ning, Zengping Long, Qiong Xiao, Lihua Huang, Fang Wang, Wankun Xiao, Qingxiang Lan, Xiaolong Chen, Haiyan

第一作者:Lu, Fanghai;路坊海

通信作者:Xiao, TF[1]

机构:[1]Guizhou Inst Technol, Sch Mat & Met Engn, Guiyang 550003, Guizhou, Peoples R China;[2]Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang 550081, Guizhou, Peoples R China;[3]Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China;[4]Guangzhou Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China

第一机构:贵州理工学院材料与冶金工程学院

通信机构:corresponding author), Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Geochem, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Guiyang 550081, Guizhou, Peoples R China.

年份:2017

卷号:174

起止页码:105-115

外文期刊名:HYDROMETALLURGY

收录:;EI(收录号:20174104265989);Scopus(收录号:2-s2.0-85030860841);WOS:【SCI-EXPANDED(收录号:WOS:000416195200014)】;

基金:The fund supports are from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51664010, 51664009, 51664008 and 51404081) and the Guizhou Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (2014-2083, 2016-7095). The anonymous referees for helpful comments and suggestion are also appreciated.

语种:英文

外文关键词:Gallium; Primary original sources; Recovery; Extraction methods

摘要:Gallium (Ga) is extensively employed in integrated circuits and advanced electronic devices as it provides the benefits of low energy consumption and high computation speeds. However, the Ga-bearing host minerals are scarce in nature. Ga occurs in combination with several minerals, mainly including aluminum, zinc, iron ores and coals, of which bauxite, zinc ores and coals are the primary original sources of Ga currently. Mining minerals for the sole extraction of Ga is not economical due to the low concentration of Ga. Accordingly, Ga is mainly recovered as a by-product from the processing of minerals. The current main commercial resources of Ga are Bayer liquor and zinc residue, which contribute to nearly all of the worldwide Ga production. The production of low-grade (99.99% pure) Ga has been increasing at an average rate of 7.4% p.a. for the past four decades and amounted to 375 tons in 2016. It is estimated to increase by 20-fold by the year 2030 compared to the yield of 275 tons in 2012. The mounting worldwide demand for Ga necessitates the search for additional resources and recovery technologies for this particular element. Apart from the Bayer liquor and the zinc residue, there are several other Ga-resources, which include red mud, coal fly ash, Ga-bearing electronics industrial waste, and flue dust from electric furnaces at phosphorus factories. Based on the chemical properties of Ga, it is evident that both strong acidic/basic conditions and high temperatures favor the efficient extraction of Ga from its corresponding minerals. Several hydrometallurgical processes based mainly on acid/alkaline leaching along with solution purification and recovery (e.g. ion exchange, solvent extraction and precipitation) have been proposed for Ga extraction from these resources. In this paper, the current status of Ga recovery was reviewed and specific examples were utilized for each resource to discuss the extraction methods, the recoveries and the optimum Ga-recovery conditions for each resource. Additional research appears to be necessary to establish a highly efficient and environmentally friendly process to recover Ga from these resources.

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